is it possible to make certain pages/parts of the system available publicly without needing to login?
making pages and sections accessible publicly
There is the AOP Portal to allow end-users to have their own logins (they are not users in SuiteCRM, they are Contacts).
If you want public access, there is nothing prepared to allow that but there are, of course, many ways to achieve it. You have a web server, you can serve pages
If you don’t check the logged in status at the beginning of every entry point, you won’t be required to login.
Please be VERY careful with what you do in these pages, especially if they’re not static, and you want them to access data from the CRM.